A Pathway of Elements for An Ideal Lesson

Photo: M Nurul Ikhsan Saleh

I have a plan to teach the course of Peace and Conflict Resolution for the Master Program in Indonesian universities. One of the significant pedagogical elements for the success of my teaching in this course will be the provision of objectives based on six levels of cognitive knowledge such as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation guided by Bloom’s Taxonomy (Marzano & Kendall, 2006, p. 5). Bloom’s Taxonomy provides a schema to classify objectives, educational goals, and standards (Krathwohl, 2002, p. 218). Some affective domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy are receiving phenomena, responding to phenomena, valuing, organizing values and internalizing values.
Regarding the appropriate strategy for the learning process in this course, I will use Problem Based Learning (PBL) which is a learner-centered approach (Savery, 2015, p. 5). This framework supports students to engage in solving real-life problems. It is essential to implement PBL in online environments that provide group processing and collaborative learning, building a sense of learning community by using multimedia. The use of multimedia brings beneficial effects in PBL for students in having an ability to detect symptoms, signs, or behaviors through audio, visual, or tactile senses (Hung, Jonassen, & Liu, 2008, p. 500).
In addition, engaging students in the teaching and learning process from pre face-to-face, to face-to-face, and post face-to-face activities is pivotal to integrate with online learning as a way to be blended learning in order to achieve the learning objectives (Garrison & Kanuka, 2004, p. 96). Therefore, for pre face-to-face activities, students have to pre-read of the chapter in the text book, watch a recommended video on Youtube, and do online quizzes through the university’s online learning portal. In face-to-face learning activities, students will work on a case study in a group related to the previous reading material in pre face-to-face activities. Then students will receive clarification, feedback, and evaluation by me in post face-to-face activities.
Overall, to engage students, and provide an objective, a good strategy for the learning process, as well as feedback and evaluation are a pathway of elements for the ideal lesson.

Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95-105.
Hung, W., Jonassen, D. H., & Liu, R. (2008). Problem-based learning. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 3, 485-506.
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into practice, 41(4), 212-218.
Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2006). The new taxonomy of educational objectives: Corwin Press.
Savery, J. R. (2015). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Essential readings in problem-based learning: Exploring and extending the legacy of Howard S. Barrows, 9, 5-15.


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